History Of The 28th. Alabama Infantry Regiment



HISTORICAL MARKER
Location: On Lafayette Road, 50 feet south of Sawmill Fork Road.
MANIGAULT'S BRIGADE
HINDMAN'S DIVISION - POLK'S CORPS
BRIG. GENERAL ARTHUR M. MANIGAULT
SEPTEMBER 20TH 1863
24th Alabama ------------------------------------ Col. N.N. Davis
28th Alabama --------------------------------- Col. John C. Reid
34th Alabama -------------------------- Maj. John N. Slaughter
10th & 19th South Carolina ------- Col. James F. Pressley
Water's Alabama Battery ---- Lieut. Charles W. Watkins

The brigade advanced at 11:20 A.M., it's center crossed the road at this point, and directed it's march toward the Widow Glenn's.Upon nearing that point it's left, the 24th, 28th and 34th Alabama, was charged by Wilder's Brigade, dismounted, assisted by the 29th Indiana Col. Harrison, also dismounted and forced back east of the Lafayette Road. Subsequently this portion of the brigade advanced, rejoined the 10th and 19th South Carolina, and the whole proceed to the vicinity of the Vittetoe House where it formed on the left of Bushrod R. Johnson's Division, and took part in the afternoon assault of Snodgrass Hill.

HISTORICAL MARKER
Location: 100 Feet East of Vittetoe Well.
MANIGAULT'S BRIGADE
HINDMAN'S DIVISION - POLK' CORPS
BRIG. GENERAL AUTHUR M. MANIGAULT
SEPTEMBER 20TH, 1863 3:00 P.M. - 2ND POSITION
24th Alabama -------------------------------------- Col. N.N. Davis
28th Alabama ----------------------------------- Col. John C. Reid
34th Alabama ---------------------------- Maj. John N. Slaughter
10th & 19th South Carolina --------- Col. James F. Pressley
Water's Alabama Battery ------ Lieut. Charles W. Watkins

The Brigade reached this position from the vicinity of Viniard's about 3:00. Upon reporting to General Bushrod Johnson the Brigade was placed on his left. The 10th and 19th South Carolina ascended the spur and joined Johnson's Brigade. While the center and left extended across the ravine. Deas' Brigade operated against the spur to the left. The line advanced about 3:30 to attack the general crest, and after severe fighting was repulsed. The left of Manigault and Deas falling back to the foot of the hill, and not being subsequently engaged. The 10th and 19th South Carolina , the 28th Alabama and part of the 34th Alabama took part with Johnson's troops in final advance just before sunset and followed the enemy over the crest in his withdrawal.

HISTORICAL MARKER
Location: On Southwest Slope of Snodgrass Hill.
MANIGAULT'S BRIGADE
HINDMAN'S DIVISION - POLK'S CORPS
BRIG. GENERAL ARTHUR M. MANIGAULT
SEPTEMBER 20th, 1863 - 3:30 P.M.
24th Alabama ---------------------------------- Col. N.N. Davis
28th Alabama -------------------------------- Col. John C. Reid
34th Alabama ------------------------ Maj. John N. Slaughter
10th & 19th South Carolina ----- Col. James F. Pressley
Water's Alabama Battery --- Lieut. Charles W. Watkins

At 3:00 the Brigade arrived at Vittetoe's and formed on the left of Johnson's Brigade of Bushrod R. Johnson's Division, with Deas' Brigade on it's left. It took part in the assaults on Snodgrass Hill, it's right reaching the crest of the spur east of the Vittetoe House and it's center advancing through the ravine near the house leading up to the ridge. The right maintained it's position on the hill upon the left of Johnson's Brigade until the enemy retired. Strength in action: 2,315 officers and men. Casualties: Killed 67, wounded 434, missing 46, total 547, percentage of loss 23.6.

The Confederate Force stationed itself on Lookout Mountain, across Chattanooga Creek and along the northwest face of Missionary Ridge. At this position they were able to control the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad. The wagon road along the north bank of the Tennessee River was made impassable by the southern artillery and sharpshooters posted on Raccoon Mountain.

At this time it was the strategy of the southern command to starve the enemy out. With the Union forces down to quarter rations and in danger of being captured, the government in Washington started actions to rectify this situation. On October 17th, 1863 General U.S. Grant was given command over all Northern operations east of the Mississippi and south of the Ohio Rivers, making his headquarters at Chattanooga.
During mid October Confederate President Jefferson Davis would make his second visit to the Army of Tennessee. Like the first visit, he made a critical move that would result in weakening the army's strength. He ordered General Longstreet, together with a force of about 15,000 troops to move into east Tennessee as a diversion, hoping to capture Knoxville.

Meanwhile General Grant went to work and soon opened a new line of supply to Chattanooga, by which the northern troops were able to receive food and munitions. General Rosecrans was replaced by General George H. Thomas. General William T. Sherman was ordered to east Tennessee, bringing with him some 25,000 Union troops. General Joseph "Fighting Joe" Hooker would also be summoned, accompanied by approximately 16,000 Union troops. By late November, General Grant would have a total of over 80,000 men for duty, substantially outnumbering the Confederates.

During late November the 28th Alabama was part of a force which had secured a line of defense along the foot of Missionary Ridge, at Orchard Knob. On the afternoon of the 23rd, the 28th Alabama , along with the 24th Alabama held the picket line occupying a front of about 800 yards. They were entrenched in a shallow ditch and low earthworks, with rifle pits a little in advance. At about 4:30 the enemy formed two lines of battle with skirmishers in front and began to advance. At about 5:00 the enemy came within range and the fighting commenced. The first line of Union troops were checked by the fire of the 28th and 24th Alabama, but soon joined by their second line the enemy advanced in spite of heavy fire. Soon the oncoming union force came in contact with the 28th Alabama, which were reported "to have behaved well, resisting obstinately and fought with great gallantry. Many fought hand to hand, and at bayonet's point."

Col. John C. Reid would later maintain that he was under orders to hold his position at all hazards, and the 28th Alabama fought to do so at a great cost in casualties. Before finally being ordered to retire, the 28th Alabama lost 172 men killed, wounded and captured. Also captured was their Regimental Flag.
Again on November 25th, the 28th Alabama would feel the heat of battle. During this conflict many men of other regiments attempted to pass to the rear, in efforts to escape the enemy. The Provost Guard had been ordered to shoot any who tried to run Reports state that the 28th Alabama "stood their ground and were fighting manfully."

During the night the Army of Tennessee would retreat across Chickamauga Creek. They moved on to Ringgold, Georgia on November 26th and arrived near Dalton, Georgia on the 27th. Shortly after General Bragg was replaced as commander of the army by General Joseph E. Johnston.

HISTORICAL MARKER
Location: Across the street from 205 Orchard Knob Avenue
28TH ALABAMA REGIMENT
MANIGAULT'S BRIGADE (HINDMAN) ANDERSON'S DIVISION
HARDEE'S CORP.
MAJ. W. L. BUTLER, COMMANDING
NOVEMBER 23TH, 1863 2:00 P.M.

The regiment occupied the crest of the elevated knoll southeast of this position, as support to the Confederate picket line deployed in advance of this outpost about 2:00 P.M. November 23rd, when Wood's Division with an effective force of over 5,000, as the center of the advance of the enemy moved rapidly forward from Fort Wood Slope, drove in the skirmish line to this position dispersed the outpost holding Orchard Knob and threatened this portion of the line from flank and rear, while the regiment was fiercely engaged with Hazen's Brigade in front, in a bayonet encounter. Out flanked and overwhelmed, a large portion of the regiment was captured, but not till it had inflicted a lose on Hazen's Brigade alone, in killed and wounded 167, the regiment lost it's colors and many officers and men captured. Killed and wounded not reported.

HISTORICAL MARKER
Location: On Crest Road, Missionary Ridge
MANIGAULT'S BRIGADE
HINDMAN'S DIVISION - HARDEE'S CORPS.
BRIG. GENERAL ARTHUR M. MANIGAULT
November 25th, 1863
24th Alabama ------------------------------------ Col. N.N. Davis
28th Alabama ----------------------------------- Maj. W.L. Butler
34th Alabama ------------------------- Maj. John N. Slaughter
10th & 19th South Carolina ------ Lieut. Col. J.T. Porcher
Maj. James L. White

On November 23rd a portion of Manigault's Brigade held Orchard Knob and the low rocky ridge to the south of it. Upon the advance of the enemy in force, the 28th Alabama , misunderstanding it's orders to be to hold it's position at all hazards, remained in rifle pits fighting, and 146 officers and men, and the colors were captured. During the 24th of November the front rank of the brigade occupied the works at the foot of the ridge and on the afternoon of the 25th fell back before the Union advance and joined the rear rank on the crest of the ridge. Deas' Brigade was on it's right and Anderson's (Tucker's) on it's left. In the general assault it was attacked by the left of Wood's Division. It's position being carried, it retreated with it's division to Chickamauga, crossing by Shallowford Road.

The Army of Tennessee contracted shelter at Dalton, Georgia and went into winter quarters. During the winter there were furloughs granted, enabling some to return home to visit their families. Some had families that came to visit at Dalton.

On January 23rd, 1864 most members of the 28th Alabama reenlisted for the duration of the war. The next few months were spent training, target practice, drilling and maneuvers. For recreation there was baseball games, races and wrestling matches. On the 23rd day of February the 28th Alabama was ordered into battle, but never seriously engaged. They returned to camp on February 28th.

May 1864 brought the bloody struggle for Atlanta. Fighting occurred on a daily bases. The 28th Alabama took part in various degrees, losing heavily in proportion to the men it had available for duty. Very little detailed information is available concerning the 28th. Alabama, however the regiment participated in the following battles and skirmishes in and around Atlanta during the Summer of 1864.

The Battle of Resaca Starting on May 13th.,
Captain Hugh G. Loller of Company "E" was killed on May 14th.

The Second Battle of Resaca (also known as the Battle of Oostanaula) on May 15th.

The Battle at Cassville,Georgia May 19th.

The Battle of New Hope Church May 25th.
On May 31st,while on picket duty, the 28th Alabama charged the enemy's breastworks, finding the enemy at full force they retired to their original position, losing 6 men killed and 31 wounded.

The Battle of Zion Church
Near Marietta, Georgia on June 22nd.

The Battle at Kennesaw Mountain
June 27th.

The Battle of Peachtree Creek
July 20th.

The Battle of Atlanta
July 22nd.

The Battle of the Poor House
(also known as the Battle of Lickshillet Road) On July 29th. Captain William A. Mcleod of Company "H" led the regiment in the line of battle and was killed. Other loses included 4 men killed, 24 wounded and 2 missing.

Due to his failure to defeat the enemy at Atlanta, General Johnston was replaced by General John B. Hood as Commander of the Army of Tennessee. During August 1864 the 28th Alabama was part of the army that occupied Atlanta during the siege. On August 31st they fought in the Battle of Jonesboro, and on September 1st left Atlanta along with the Army of Tennessee in their evacuation.

Thereafter Union General William T. Sherman would occupy Atlanta giving the order for civilian evacuation on September 4th. Upon partially burning the city, General Sherman started his "March to the Sea" on November 15th.

While Sherman and his army marched across Georgia, burning most everything in their path, General Hood led the southern army across Tennessee toward Nashville. The 28th Alabama being part of the first troops to reach Spring Hill, TN on November 29th. On November 30th, with only part of the army available, General Hood ordered them into battle. Some 18,000 men moved forward over a mile and a half of bluegrass fields. 6,000 men were either killed, wounded or captured at the Battle of Franklin. This is said to have been the only night attack authorized by the confederates during the war. During December 1864 came the Battle of Nashville where Lieut. Colonel William L. Butler, then Commander of the 28th Alabama, was wounded and captured. During these two final engagements of 1864 the 28th Alabama lost severely in men killed, wounded and captured.

After their defeat in Nashville, the Army of Tennessee retreated into Mississippi. Early in 1865 one last effort was made by the south, General Johnston was brought back from retirement to once again command the army. His plan was to stop Union General Sherman's invasion of the Carolinas. At this time the 28th Alabama was in route across Alabama and Georgia to North Carolina to join General Johnston.
Before ever reaching Johnston, his efforts were defeated at Bentonville, North Carolina. On March 10th , the day after General Lee's surrender to General Grant at Appomattox, the 28th Alabama was consolidated with the 24th and 34th Alabama Regiments retaining the numbers and colors of the 24th. On March 31st, the 28th Alabama rejoined it's brigade at Smithfield. Unaware of Lee's surrender, the regiment marched toward Greensboro, North Carolina. As they advanced it became clear that the end had come. They finally surrendered at Greensboro on April 26th, 1865.

At the time of surrender no exact numbers are given as to how many members of the 28th Alabama were present. Over 1600 men are on record as serving with the regiment during the war. The brigade to which the regiment belonged recorded 3500 men served but only 450 were at Greensboro to surrender. Most of the remaining members of the 28th Alabama were paroled at locations within the state of Alabama.

Field and staff officers:
Col. J. W. Frazer (TN; resigned)
Lt. Cols. John C. Reid (Perry; promoted)
W. Lavelle Butler (wounded, Nashville, and captured)
Majors: T. W. W. Davies (Coosa; transferred to the navy)
W. Lavelle Butler (promoted); and Adjutants Sumter Lee (Perry; resigned)
Charles R. Harris (Perry; wounded, Nashville, and captured).

Captains and counties from which the companies came:
Co. "A", Perry County:
W. Lavelle Butler (promoted);
James H. Graham (wounded, Chickamauga);
John F. Wilson (wounded, Franklin)
Co. "B", Blount and Marshall Counties:
John H. Turpin (wounded, Murfreesboro, and captured)
E. R. Kiker (captured, Missionary Ridge)
Co. "C", Blount County:
Maxmillan Tidmore (resigned)
John Couch.
Co. "D", Jefferson County:
William H. Nabors.
Co. "E", Walker County:
H. A. M. Henderson (resigned)
Hugh G. Loller (KIA, Resaca)
Co. "F", Walker County:
Franklin A. Gamble (resigned)
L. E. Gilbert.
Co. "G", Jefferson County:
Miller (resigned)
John C. Morrow (resigned)
G. W. Hewitt (wounded, Murfreesboro, Chickamauga)
Co. "H", Jefferson County:
J. F. Tarrant (resigned)
W. M. Hawkins (KIA, Murfreesboro)
William R. McAdory (KIA, Missionary Ridge)
William. A. McLeod (KIA, Atlanta)
Co. "I", Dallas County
F. M. Hopkins (captured, Missionary Ridge)
Lt. P. G. Wood
Co. "K", Perry County
Charles R. Harris (resigned)
Homer M. Ford.
Co. "L", Walker County
F. A. Musgrove (wounded, Murfreesboro)

HONOR ROLL - MEMBERS OF THE 28TH AL INF REG

Battle of Murfreesboro:
Pvt. Topley Murphy, Co. B
Sgt. Elias Wood, Co. G;
Sgt. W. R. Curry, Co. H
Sgt. Wm. E. Short, Co. L.

Battle of Chickamauga:
Pvt. George Aubrey, Co. A
Pvt. J. R. Gaither, Co. B
1st Sgt. W. H. Logan, Co. C
Pvt. C. D. Goolsby, Co. D
Pvt. R. F. Sumner, Co. E
Cpl. David Knox, Co. F
1st Sgt. Wm. J. Wilson, Co. G
Pvt. Hosea Vines, Co. H
Pvt. L. P. Wright, Co. I
Sgt. James R. Smith, Co. K
Pvt. Jacob Smith, Co.L







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